At a glance
The National Policy on Education (NPE-1968) was prepared to improve the quality of education in the country and was focused on providing education facilities to all the citizens of the nation. The policy has been reviewed in the subsequent years. It was further updated in 1992 to spread knowledge and freedom of thought among the citizens of the country. Though education is in the concurrent list of the Constitution of India, the State Governments play an important role in the development of education especially in the primary and the secondary levels.
According to the National Policy on Education-1968, the government of India had formulated certain principles to promote the development of education in the country.
These principles are:
- Free and Compulsory Education:
According to Article- 45 (Indian Constitution), education should be free and compulsory up to the age of 14. Steps should be taken to ensure that child who is enrolled in the school should successfully complete the course.
- Education of Teachers:
Teacher is the most important person to determine the quality of education in the country. He should be honored in the society. His emoluments and service standard should be increased with due regards to their responsibilities and qualifications. Proper attention should be given for teacher education. They should also get academic freedom to write, to study and to speak on national and international issues. The constitution of India mentions freedom of expression to all.
- Language Development
The policy had also emphasized on the development of Indian as well as foreign languages in the country. The three language formula should be introduced in which a student at the secondary level should know Hindi, English and the regional language of his state. The language Sanskrit has been included as an optional subject in secondary level.
- Education Opportunity for all
Under this policy every child of the country should get education irrespective of caste, religion, region or whatever the case may be. Special emphasis should be given to backward classes, minority children, girls and physically challenged children to avail the education facilities.
- Uniform Education Structure
The structure of education should be uniform throughout the country. It should be a 10+2+3 pattern from higher secondary to college level.
- Uniform Education Structure
During the course of study each student should get an atmosphere for sports and games. He should also develop the quality of work experience and should also participate in programmes related to National construction and Community services.
- To review the progress
The government should review the progress of education in the country from time to time and should present guidelines for future development.
The National Policy on Education-1986 was modified in 1992. It is a comprehensive frame work to guide the development of education in the country. The principles included in the NPE-1968 are also included in the new policy with some modifications.
Modifications and Additions
- The new education policy will give emphasis on retention of children in the schools at primary level. The cause of the drop out of the children from the school should be strategically handled by making plans. The network of Non-Formal education in the country to be introduced and also the education should be made compulsory up to the age of 14.
- Greater attention should be given to the backward classes, physically challenged and minority child for their development in education.
- Major emphasis will be laid on women ’s education to overcome the poor rate of illiteracy among female. They will be given priority in various educational institutes and special provisions will be made available for them in vocational, technical and professional education.
- Institutions will be provided with resources like infrastructure, computers, libraries. Accommodation for students will be made available especially for girls students. Teachers will have the rights to teach, learn and research.
- The Central Advisory Board of Education will play an important role in reviewing educational development and also to determine the changes required to improve the education in the country.
- State government may establish State Advisory Board of Education to look after the state’s progress in education.
- Non government organizations will be encouraged to facilitate the education in the country. At the same time steps will be taken to prevent establishment of institutions for commercialization of education.
Note: There is a huge modification and addition in the policy but here, only the important ones are pointed out.