Article 30 (1) of the Indian Constitution gives, minorities the right to establish and administer educational institution of their choice without any discrimination (fundamental right). This has been effectively implemented through the NCMEI Act. The Government of India is providing necessary funds for the development of Minority Education in the country. There is a provision of appointing Urdu teachers in blocks and districts of the states where the population of educationally backward minorities is more. The scheme of assistance for infrastructure and modernization of Madrasas provides appointment of teachers in these institutes. More than 244 districts have been identified for the development of minority education in the country.
To increase the rural literacy, the Government of India in association with the states has started Adult education programme in the country. It’s meant for those grown up individuals who do not fit in to the scheme of formal education. The National Literacy Mission (NLM) has been launched to attain full literacy in the country.
The non-literates in the age group 15-35 have been included in this programme to achieve the mission. This age group has been the focus of attention because they are in the productive and reproductive period of life. The total literacy campaign offers them a second chance, in case they missed the opportunity or were denied access to mainstream formal education. This system of education has been fruitful and the literacy percentage of the country has been reached to a considerable level.
The Technical / Vocational Education and Training are multi-sectoral in nature. Each ministry/department in Central as well as State Governments is responsible for manpower development in that sector. While some offer regular formal or non-formal courses, others draw from the general pool of educated and trained manpower.
In the distance mode of education students are not required to be present in the classroom, barring some courses. This system of education has fulfilled the desire of the students who want to pursue further education.
Correspondence Education is a method of providing education to non resident students, who receive lessons and exercises through mails and, upon completion, return them for analysis, criticism, and grading to the institute or university concerned. It is being increasingly used by students, business and industry in training programmes, by men and women in the armed forces, and by the governments of many nations as part of their educational program.
Part time education
Part time education has become very popular in recent days. In this form of education there is a great interaction between the students & teachers. Classes are generally taken in the evening or the week-ends or any time suitable to students. Here students learn as much as students receiving in campus education through traditional face-to-face instruction. Though in part-time education teaching time is unconventional but student-to-student interaction and timely teacher- student feedback makes it as effective as traditional instruction.
Open Schooling System
The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) was established in November 1989 as an autonomous registered society. The society provides education to more than 14 lakh students of the country through a network of study centres spread all over the country. The programmes offered by the society are as follow:
- Foundation Course
- Secondary Education Course
- Senior Secondary Education Course
- Vocational Education Programme
- Life Enrichment Programme
- Open Basic Education for Universal ElementaryEducation (UEE)
Admissions are held twice a year during May and November (Direct Admission) and in July (through Accredited Institutions). The institute conducts examination twice in a year one in March/April and the other in September/October. At present there are more than 2500 study centres operating under NIOS for providing the open schooling system of education in the country.