Ministry for Education
The Indian government is quasi federal in nature. The union government and the state government together are responsible for the development of education in the country. Hence separate ministries are formed for smooth functioning of the departments.
On 26th Sept. 1985 the government of India created a new ministry in the name of Ministry of Human Resource Development. This ministry is responsible for educational development of the country. The ministry has two departments viz. Department of School Education and Literacy and Department of Higher Education.
Under the former, there are two sub categories viz.
- Elementary Education
- Secondary Education and Adult Education
Under the later, there are six sub categories viz.
- University and Higher Education
- Technical Education
- Book Promotion and Copy Right
- Minority Education
The ministry is headed by a cabinet minister called HRD minister followed by two state ministers, one for Higher Education and other for School Education and Literacy. Again a number of secretaries are also appointed by the ministry for administrative purpose.
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The states of India have their separate ministries for education. The ministry for education of a particular state consists of a cabinet minister followed by a state minister. The state governments also formulate policies for education. There is also provision of acts and bills in the state legislature. These are brought whenever necessary. The minister is responsible to present the bill in the State Legislative Assembly for receiving grants and aids.
Statutory Councils and Apex Bodies
The Statutory Councils and Apex Bodies play important roles in reforming the education system of the country. These councils or apex bodies are either established by the state governments or by the central government. They are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants to undergraduate and post graduate programmes and various awards. The Important National councils of the country include:
* AllIndia Council for TechnicalEducation (AICTE)
* IndianCouncil for Agriculture Research (ICAR)
* NationalCouncil for Teacher Education (NCTE)
* RehabilitationCouncil of India (RCI)
* MedicalCouncil of India (MCI)
* IndianNursing Council (INC)
* DentistCouncil of India (DCI)
* CentralCouncil of Homeopathy (CCH)
* CentralCouncil of Indian Medicine (CCIM) etc.
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The governing bodies in educational institutes have been set up for the smooth functioning of the institutes. The need of management and governance is no less emphasized in Indian Education System. In recent days the roles and responsibilities of the Governing boards are becoming more complex. In Higher Education System they have a majority of external representatives – from business, industry and regional authorities. Often the chair of the Governing board is no longer the Vice-chancellor or Director but an external personality appointed by the Government.
The governing bodies (or Board of Governors) of top institutes in the country like IITs and IIMs are headed by a chairman or president who is either the head of the institute or an important personality of the society. The members of the governing body are taken either from various organizations of the society or from local administration or state or central administration. The Governing body is responsible for various matters related to the administration of the institution and it takes decision in this regard.