Structure of Education


A Schematic Diagram:






Elementary Education


The education system of India is one of the largest of its kind in the world. More than 102.8 million people come under this education system.Elementary education in India has been emphasized to increase the literacy percentage of the country.India’s post-independence period has seen the launch of various schemes by the Government to promote education among the masses and to achieve universalization of elementary education in the country.The constitutional and legal statements that appear time to time are as follows:
  • Constitutional mandate, 1950 - "The State shall endeavor to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education to all children until they complete the age of 14 years."

  • National Policy of Education, 1986 - "It shall be ensured that free and compulsory education of a satisfactory level is provided to all children up to 14 years of age before we enter the twenty first century".

  • Unnikrishnan Judgment, 1993 - "Every child/citizen of this country has a right to free education until he completes the age of fourteen years."

The elementary education in India starts from the early child hood days.The system includes three stages: pre-primary, primary and middle level.The analytical report, given below, gives an insight into the state of elementary education in different states in the country.

Elementary Education: State Summary-2005


State/UT Districts Blocks Villages Schools Enrolment Teachers
1 Andhra Pradesh
466725
23 1298 27702 92768 11335441
2 Arunachal Pradesh
8670
15 78 1956 2224 208732
3 Assam
155897
23 144 19774 40175 4056996
4 Bihar
165309
37 532 32284 53275 12853348
5 Chandigarh
4476
1 20 20 179 103867
6 Chhattisgarh
104495
16 147 21647 38607 3872360
7 Delhi
64899
9 27 75 4267 2046865
8 Gujarat
190955
25 230 19557 36315 6819906
9 Haryana
59905
19 119 7207 13199 2181447
10 Himachal Pradesh
52618
12 115 9825 15676 1089609
11 Jammu & Kashmir
71181
12 180 6152 15925 1351862
12 Jharkhand
71126
22 222 18131 22199 3821676
13 Karnataka
227665
27 180 27480 53461 7900129
14 Kerala
118948
14 149 1924 11684 2966380
15 Madhya Pradesh
377420
45 314 53266 111727 12180832
16 Maharashtra
450785
35 366 40355 76581 11636869
17 Meghalaya
25363
7 44 5039 8196 481356
18 Mizoram
12582
8 36 782 2346 196856
19 Nagaland
18306
8 49 1266 2356 400612
20 Orissa
158481
30 381 36619 50849 5815653
21 Pondicherry
4650
4 6 334 563 125339
22 Punjab
91484
17 141 12385 21940 2683975
23 Rajasthan
296041
32 333 36251 87691 9964401
24 Sikkim
7682
4 11 512 1070 115289
25 Tamil Nadu
250214
29 420 19758 50436 9784392
26 Tripura
30441
4 45 924 3456 676836
27 Uttar Pradesh
400721
70 962 85654 142856 27087566
28 Uttaranchal
52922
13 102 11524 18628 1384944
29 West Bengal
232311
20 482 37395 59165 12870492
All Districts
4172272
581* 535798 7133 1037813 156014030


*Including bifurcated districts


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The pre-primary education begins at the age of five and it continues for one year.This is the initial stage of a child in his/her educational career.When the child reaches an age of six, he or she prepares to go for primary education.




Primary


The primary schooling system starts at the age of six.The Primary Stage consists of either from Classes I-V or from I-IV depending upon the education system of the state.The five years system i.e. Classes I-V is applicable in 20 States/UTs namely Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal and Yanam regions of Pondicherry.The four year system consists of classes I-IV which is applicable in Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe region of Pondicherry.


Middle


The middle stage of education consists of classes either from VI-VIII or from VI-VII depending upon the states or union territories.The 18 states which come under the first category are: Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal region of Pondicherry.The second system (VI-VII) is effective in states like Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe region of Pondicherry.


Special programmes under Elementary Education


Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA)


“Sarva Siksha Abhiyan” or “Education for All Movement” was started by the Government of India to make the universalisation of elementary education in the country.The programme was mandated in the constitution making education free to children of ages 6-14 and a fundamental right.The programme aims to achieve the goal by 2010.


SSA has several plans in its hand.The programme includes opening of new schools in those areas where schooling facilities are not available.It also provides basic infrastructure to the existing schools by providing additional classrooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and other accessories.It also seeks to provide computer education to the children. The programme emphasizes on girl’s education and children with special needs.


Non-Formal Education


For making the universalisation of elementary education in the country an important measure adopted was opening of non-formal education centres for children in the age group 6-14.This system of education was adopted for those children who were not covered under the formal education system.


The children in the age group of 6-14 were out of the school either because they were not admitted in the schools or were withdrawing from the schools before the completion of their elementary education. Hence these children now get free education at their door step.Though this programme was started in the late 1978, it has been accelerated in the recent days. These non-formal centres are mainly located in the rural villages of the country.


Secondary Education


Stages:


Secondary education in India starts form class VIII or IX depending upon the states or union territories. The Secondary Stage consists of Classes IX-X in 19 States/UTs. Viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan , Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi and Karaikal region of Pondicherry.


The other stage i.e. classes VIII to X is adopted in 13 States/UTs viz., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Mahe & Yanam regions of Pondicherry.


The Higher Secondary / Senior Secondary stage of school (classes XI-XII) which comes under the 10+2 pattern is available in all the States/UTs though in some States/UTs these classes run in Junior colleges or are attached with universities.


Medium of Study:


The medium of instruction at primary level is the regional language of the respective state.Teaching of Hindi and English is compulsory in most of the non-Hindi speaking states.The states like Tamil Nadu, Tripura and Karaikal region of Pondicherry have not accepted Hindi as a compulsory subject to be included in their syllabus.


Final Examinations:


The final examinations are conducted at the end of classes X and XII in all states and Union Territories. The State Boards or Councils conduct these examinations.The age limit for secondary exams varies from 14 to 16 whereas for higher secondary it varies from 16+ to 18+ years. In some states the first final examination is conducted at the middle school level of education.


Academic Session:


The academic session usually begins from July after a long summer vacation in most of the states but it is different in hilly states where the winter vacation is significant.


The total number of working days is more than 200 days in all states and Union Territories.


Higher Education


Introduction


The Higher Education sector of India is the third largest in the world in terms of number of students.The higher education refers to the study in colleges, universities and research centres.After the completion of class 12th or intermediate course a student generally goes for higher study.The country has about 380 universities and deemed universities, over 17,500 colleges and hundreds of national and regional research institutes.The institutes for higher learning in India follow specific rules as made by the state or the central government.There are also some statutory and autonomous bodies running in the country to regulate the higher education system in the country.


Undergraduate Colleges


The initial period of the higher education starts from the undergraduate level.After completion of intermediate level (i.e.10+2 or class 12th) in any stream a student is eligible to pursue higher education.


The duration of study is either three years or four years or even five years in case of Medical Science or Architecture etc. The Engineering degree is of four years duration and all other degree courses in Arts, Commerce and Basic Sciences are of three years duration.After successful completion of the course a student is awarded a degree by the college or by the university with which the college is affiliated.


There are more than 16,000 colleges in India.These colleges are affiliated to different universities of their state.The pattern of examination varies from one university to the other.Some holds annual examination while other conducts semesters.The total marks also differ from one university to the other.Some universities have started the “grading system” for awarding degrees.The syllabus for a particular course is designed by the affiliating university and it is in a state of modification from time to time.


The colleges of India follow the reservation policy as mandated by the government.There is provision of reservation of seats in colleges for special categories like Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), Other Backward Castes (OBCs), Physically Challenged, Sports Personalities and other categories as classified by the reservation act.


Click here for list of top colleges…


Universities


A university is an institution of higher learning that offers degrees at all levels (Bachelor, Master or Doctorate) in different fields.There are as many as 300 universities in India which are either state, central or deemed universities.These universities provide different programmes and also carry out researches in respective fields.


The Post Graduate or Masters Degree programme is offered at all universities in the country. Generally the duration of masters’ degree programme is of two years.After successful completion of programme in any discipline, the student is awardedMasters degree in the same field.The student who undergoes Master programme would get intensive theory and practical classes.Sometime internships and trainings are also covered as a part of the programme of study to sharpen the skills of the student.


Universities of India follow the guidelines of the University Grant Commission (UGC). The funds are provided by the state governments or by the UGC.


Evaluation Process


Evaluation process in Indian Education System is meant for evaluating the academic standard of a student by awarding grades, divisions, marks or by any other forms as recognized by the government.


Grading system in secondary school


- 85% and above -Excellent

- 80-85% - Superior

- 70-80% - Very good

- 60-70% - Good

- 50-60% - Satisfactory

- 40-50% - Average

- 35-40% - Pass

- Below 40% - Fail


Grading systems in higher education institutions


- 60-100% - First Division

- 50-59% - Second Division

- 40-49% - Third Division


The most predominant form of grading system (in evaluation process) in the country is the percentage system. In this process the marks obtained by the student is divided by the maximum marks to obtain the percentage for award of division or class.


However some universities in India have started to follow a marking system based on a grade point average.The grading system in these institutes is a Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) on a 10 or 4 point scale. Notably, all the IITs, BITS Pilani (Pilani, Goa campuses) and most NITs use a 10-point Grade point Average (GPA) system.However, the grades themselves may be absolute (as in NITs), exclusively relative (as in BITS Pilani), or a combination of absolute, relative and/or historic, as in some IITs.


Click here to know more about Universities in India…


The Degrees specified and recognized by the University Grants Commission:


Abbreviation: AMBS

Expanded Nomenclature: Ayurved acharya Bachelor of Medicine & Surgery

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: Acharya

Expanded Nomenclature: Acharya

Years of Study: 2 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: Alankar

Expanded Nomenclature: Alankar

Years of Study: 3 Years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: Ayurved acharya

Expanded Nomenclature: Ayurved acharya

Years of Study: 5 ½ years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.A.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Arts

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.A.M

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+12


Abbreviation: B.A.M.S

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery

Years of Study: 5 ½ years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Agri

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Agriculture

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Arch.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Architecture

Years of Study: 5 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+12


Abbreviation: B.C.E

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Civil Engineering

Years of Study: 4 ½ years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.C.L.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Civil Law

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2+3


Abbreviation: B.Ch.E.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Chemical Engg.

Years of Study: 4 ½ years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Chem.Tech.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Chemical Technology

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Com

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Commerce

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.D.S.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Dental Surgery

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Dance

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Dance

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.E.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Engineering

Years of Study: 4 ½ years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.E.E.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Electrical Engeei.

Years of Study: 4 ½ years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Ed.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Education

Years of Study: 1 year

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2+3


Abbreviation: B.F.Sc.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of fisheries Science

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.GL

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of General Law

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2+3


Abbreviation: B.IM

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Indian Medicine

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.L

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Law or Laws (Integrated Course).

Years of Study: 5 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2

Abbreviation: B.litt.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Literature

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2

Abbreviation: B.litt.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Literature

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.M.B.S

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.M.E

Expanded Nomenclature: Abbreviation: Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Mus

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Music

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Nat (Ayu)

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Ayurved in Naturopathy

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Nurs

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Nursing

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.OL

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Oriental Learning

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.PE

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Physical Education

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Pharm

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Pharmacy

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Pharm(Ayu)

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Ayurved in Pharmacy

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.S.Sc.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of sanitary Science

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Sc.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Science

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.T.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Training

Years of Study: 1 year

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2+3


Abbreviation: B.Tech

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Technology

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Tel.E.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Tele Communication Engg.

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.Text

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Textiles

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.V.Sc.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Veterinary Science

Years of Study: 5 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: B.V.Sc. & A.H.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Veterinary Science And Animal Husbandry

Years of Study: 5 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Bachelor of Lib.Sc.

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Library Science

Years of Study: 1 year

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2+3


Abbreviation: Bhasha Parveena

Expanded Nomenclature: Bhasha Parveena

Years of Study: 5 years


Abbreviation: D.Ay.M

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Ayurvedic Medicine


Abbreviation: D.Ed.

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Education *


Abbreviation: D.Engg.

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Engineering *


Abbreviation: D.Hy.

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Hygiene *


Abbreviation: D.L.

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Law *


Abbreviation: D.Litt.

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Literature or Doctor of *


Abbreviation: D.M.

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Medicine (in2 years Cardiology)


Abbreviation: D.Mus.

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Music

2 years


Abbreviation: D.O.L.

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Oriental Learning *


Abbreviation: D.Phil

Expanded Nomenclature:Doctor of Philosophy *


Abbreviation: D.Sc.

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Sciences *


Abbreviation: Granthallaya

Expanded Nomenclature: Granthalaya

Years of Study: 1 year

Minimum Eligibility: 4-BLIS (Granthalaya Vigyan Shastri).


Abbreviation: Hindi Shiksha Visharad

Expanded Nomenclature: Hindi Shiksha Visharad

Years of Study: 2 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: LL.B

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Law or Laws

Years of Study: 3 years

Minimum Eligibility: 10+2


Abbreviation: LLD

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Laws *


Abbreviation: LLM

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Law of Laws

Years of Study: 2 years

Minimum Eligibility: Graduation in Law


Abbreviation: MA

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Arts

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.Arch

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Architecture

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: MBA

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Business Administration

Years of Study: 2 years

Minimum Eligibility: Bachelor’s degree in any discipline of a recognized Univ. with at least 50% marks.


Abbreviation: MBBS

Expanded Nomenclature: Bachelor of Medicineand Bachelor of Surgery.

Years of Study: 4 ½ years


Abbreviation: M.Ch.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Chirungiae

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.Ch.E

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of chemical Engg.

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.Com.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Commerce

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.D.

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Medicine

Years of Study: 3 years


Abbreviation: M.Dance

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Dance

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.E.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Engineering

Years of Study: 1 ½ years


Abbreviation: M.E.E.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Electrical Engineering

Years of Study: 4 ½ years


Abbreviation: M.Ed.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Education

Years of Study: 1 year


Abbreviation: M.Ind

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Indology

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.L

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Laws

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.Lib.Sc.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Library Science

Years of Study: 1 year


Abbreviation: M.Litt.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Literature or Master of Letters

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.M.E.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Mechanical Engineering

Years of Study: 2 years

Abbreviation: M.Mus

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Music

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.O.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Obstetrics or Master of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.O.L.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Oriental Learning

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.P.E.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Physical Education

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.Pharm.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Pharmacy

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.Phil

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Philosophy

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.Plan

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Planning 2years

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.S

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Surgery

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.S.A.M.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Ayurved in Medicine and Surgery

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.S.W.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Social Work

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.Sc.

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Science

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.Stat

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Statistics

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.Tech

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Technology

Years of Study: 1 ½ years


Abbreviation: M.Text

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Textiles

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: M.V.Sc

Expanded Nomenclature: Master of Veterinary Science

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: Parangat

Expanded Nomenclature: Parangat

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: Ph.D

Expanded Nomenclature: Doctor of Philosophy *


Abbreviation: Samaj Karya Parangat

Expanded Nomenclature: Samaj Karya Parangat

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: Samaj VidyaParangat

Expanded Nomenclature: Samaj Vidya Parangat

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: Samaj Vidya Visharad

Expanded Nomenclature: Samaj Vidya Visharad

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: Shastri

Expanded Nomenclature: Shastri

Years of Study: 3 years


Abbreviation: Shikshan Parangat

Expanded Nomenclature: Shikshan Parangat

Years of Study: 2 years

Minimum Eligibility: M.A


Abbreviation: ShikshanVisharad

Expanded Nomenclature: Shikshan Visharad

Years of Study: 1 years


Abbreviation: Shiksha Shastri

Expanded Nomenclature: Shiksha Shastri

Years of Study: 1 years


Abbreviation: Vachaspati

Expanded Nomenclature: Vachaspati

Years of Study: 2 years


Abbreviation: Vidya Praveena

Expanded Nomenclature: Vidya Praveena

Years of Study: 5 years


Abbreviation: VidyaVachaspati

Expanded Nomenclature: Vidya Vachaspati

Years of Study: 1 year

Abbreviation: Vidya Varidhi

Expanded Nomenclature: Vidya Varidhi

Years of Study: 2 years


* These degrees are awarded on the basis of the thesis submitted by the candidate.


Degrees specified in 1998under Section 22 of the UGC Act.


Abbreviation: Anu Parangat

Expanded Nomenclature:M.Phil

Years of Study: 1year

Minimum Eligibility:Master/Parangat


Abbreviation: Ayurveda Vachaspati

Expanded Nomenclature:Ph.D in Ayurveda

Minimum Eligibility:Master


Abbreviation:BA/B.Ed.

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Education

Years of Study: 4years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: BBA

Bachelor of Business Administration

Years of Study: 3years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: BBM

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Business Management

Years of Study: 3years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: BCA

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Computer Applications

Years of Study: 3years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: B.Com/B.Ed

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Commerce and Bachelor of Education

Years of Study: 4years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: B.FA

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Fine Arts

Years of Study: 4years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: B.H.M.S

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine

Years of Study: 5 ½ years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: BJ

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Journalism

Years of Study: 3 or 1years

(3years after XII Standard:1 year after Degree)

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: BLIS

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Library and Information Science

Years of Study: 3years

Bachelor’s Degree Abbreviation: BOT

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Occupational Therapy

Years of Study: 4years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: BPEd

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Physical Education

Years of Study: 1year

Minimum Eligibility:Bachelor’s Degree


Abbreviation: BPP

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Physical Planning

Years of Study: 3years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: BPS

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Professional Studies

(University to be addressed)

Years of Study: 4 ½ years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: BPT

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Physiotherapy

Years of Study: 4 ½ years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: B.Sc (Nursing)

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Years of Study: 4 years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: B.Sc (Sericulture)

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Science in Sericulture

Years of Study: 4years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: B.Sc/B.Ed

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Education

Years of Study: 4years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: B.S.M.S

Years of Study: 4 ½ years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard Abbreviation: B.Stat

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Statistics

(University to be addressed)

Years of Study: 3years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: BSW

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Social Work

Years of Study: 3years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation: BUMS

Expanded Nomenclature:Bachelor of Unani Medicine

Years of Study: 4 ½ years

Minimum Eligibility:XII Standard


Abbreviation: MCA

Expanded Nomenclature:Master of Computer Applications

Years of Study: 3years

Minimum Eligibility:Bachelor’s Degree Abbreviation: MDS

Expanded Nomenclature:Master of Dental Surgery

Years of Study: 2years

Minimum Eligibility:BDS


Abbreviation: MFA

Expanded Nomenclature:Master of Fine Arts

Years of Study: 2years

Minimum Eligibility:BFA


Abbreviation: MFSc.

Expanded Nomenclature:Master of Fishery Science

Years of Study: 2years

Minimum Eligibility:Bachelor’s Degree


Abbreviation: MJ

Expanded Nomenclature:Master of Journalism

Years of Study: 2years

Minimum Eligibility:Degree


Abbreviation: MLIS

Expanded Nomenclature:Master of Library and Information Science

Years of Study: 2years

Minimum Eligibility:BLIS/BLib


Abbreviation: MP Ed

Expanded Nomenclature:Master of Physical Education

Years of Study: 1year

Minimum Eligibility:BPED


Abbreviation: Shiksha Acharya

Expanded Nomenclature: Shiksha Acharya

Years of Study: 1year

Minimum Eligibility: BEd


Abbreviation: Vidya Nishaat

Expanded Nomenclature:Vidya Nishaat

Years of Study: 1year

Minimum Eligibility:Master’s Degree


Abbreviation:Vidyalankar

Expanded Nomenclature: Vidyalankar

Years of Study: 3years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Abbreviation:Visharad

Expanded Nomenclature:Visharad

Years of Study: 3years

Minimum Eligibility: XII Standard


Technical and Management Education (IITs, IIMs, NITs etc.)


Technical Education


The birth of technical education in India dates back to the early 19th century.But the development in this field was accelerated after India got its independence in 1947.During last three decades the technical education in the country has attained great hights.There is a well organized structure and a wide network of technical institutes offering different programmes.These include craftsman courses, technician (diploma) courses; graduate and post- graduate courses and also research programmes. These programmes inculcate knowledge, skills and competences among the students.


I. Post Matric Technical Education


This includes Diploma courses in Engineering and technology, which are offered in various technical schools and polytechnics located in various states and union territories.The course is of three years duration. Recently a number of diversified courses and facilities have been provided to students who prefer to take part time education.The products of the Diploma courses are expected to take up supervisory position in field and industry.


II. Degree level


The engineering education at degree level is offered by a number of government and private un-aided institutes of the country located in various states and union territories.These institutes follow the guide lines of the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE).These programmes are either B. Tech or B. E. as prepared by the respective institute or university.The Bachelors Degree programme is of four years duration.Some institutes follow the annual examination pattern while others follow the semester system of examination.The scoring system may be in terms of grades or marks.After successful completion of the course the student is awarded with the degree in the relevant discipline.


The country has some renowned institutes like Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and National Institutes of Technology (NITs) located in different states.These institutes are of national and international importance.There are 7 IITs and 17 NITs in India which offer quality technical education to the students.


Courses offered in Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)


Under Graduate Level


1.Civil Engineering 2.Mechanical Engineering 3.Electrical Engineering 4.Chemical Engineering 5.Textile Technology 6.Metallurgy 7.Aeronautical Engineering 8. Mining Engineering 9.Agricultural Engineering 10.Naval Architecture 11.Architecture 12.Applied Geology 13.Exploration Geo-Physics 14.Electronics and communication


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Courses offered in National Institute of Technology (NITs)


Under Graduate Level


1.Civil Engineering 2.Mechanical Engineering 3.Electrical Engineering 4.Electronics and Communication 5.Metallurgy 6.Architecture 7.Chemical Engineering


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P.G. degree level


The post graduate degree programmes offered in various institutes include M.E. or M.Tech. Basically these programmes are of two years duration. The institutes like IITs, NITs and other renowned institutes of the country provide these programmes.


Courses offered in P.G. Diploma level


1.Traffic Engineering 2.Refrigeration & Air Conditioning 3.Hydrology 4.Technology of Food & Drugs 5.Computer Science 6.Computer Control Engineering 7.Scientific Instrumentation 8.Instrumentation Technology 9.Highway Engineering 10.Irrigation & Hydraulics 11.Inland water navigation Engineering 12.Town Planning etc.


Courses offered in P.G. Degree level


1.Civil Engineering 2.Mechanical Engineering 3.Electrical Engineering 4.Chemical Engineering 5.Food & Bio-Chemical Engineering 6.Pharmacy 7.Chemical Technology 8.Textile Engineering 9.Electronics & Communication Engineering 10.Metallurgical Engineering 11.Architecture 12.Mining Engineering 13.Silicate Technology 14.Applied Mechanics 15.Town Planning 16.Applied Geology 17.Space Engineering & Rocketry 18.Aeronautical Engineering 19. Operations Research 20.Exploration Geophysics 21.Regional Planning 22.Mineral Engineering 23. Industrial Management & Industrial Engg. 24.Agricultural Engineering.


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Courses offered in IITs


Post Graduate Level


1.Aeronautical Engineering 2.Agricultural Engineering 3.Chemical Engineering 4.Civil Engineering 5.Electrical Engineering 6.Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering 7.Mechanical Engineering 8.Metallurgical Engineering 9.Mineral Engineering 10.Mining Engineering 11.Industrial Management and Industrial Engg. 12.Operations Research 13.City Planning 14.Regional Planning 15.Architecture 16.Applied Geology 17.Exploration Geophysics.

Courses offered in NITs


Post Graduate Level


1.Civil Engineering 2.Electrical Engineering 3.Mechanical Engineering 4.Metallurgical Engineering 5.Public Health Engineering 6.Structural Engineering


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M.Tech. Industry-oriented Courses in NITs


1.Design & Production Engineering Machine Tools. 2.Electronics Instrumentation 3.Transportation Engineering 4.Chemical Plant Engineering 5.Advanced Physics 6.Advanced Engineering Mathematics 7.Hydraulics and Ground water Resources Eng 8.Design & Production - Power Plant Machinery Hydro-Electric. 9.Design & Production - Power Plant Machinery-Thermal 10.Design & Production - Power Plant Machinery-Heavy Electrical Equipment. 11.Foundation Engineering (Applied to Vibratory System) 12.Engineering Materials 13.Design & Production Engineering Medium Duty Machines 14.Mechanical Shaping of Metals (Rolling, Forging and Heat Treatment) 15.Extractive Metallurgy and Foundry with emphasis on Alloy Steel Production 16.Production of Fertilizers. 17.Extractive Metallurgy 18.Foundry Technology 19.Public Health Engineering 20.Integrated Power System and Diploma course in Metallurgy Ferro Alloys Production 21.Marine Structure 22.Industrial Structures 23.Industrial Physics 24.Analysis and Design of Process Equipment 25.Production of Process Machines and Equipment 26.Design of Process Machines 27.Design & Production - High Pressure Boilers and Accessories 28.Design & Production - Heavy Machines with emphasis on mechanical equipment for steel plants 29.Technology of Metallurgical Furn.


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Technical and Professional Institutes under the Union Department of Secondary & Higher Education


Indian Institute of Technology Bombay


Indian Institute of Technology Delhi


Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur


Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur


Indian Institute of Technology Madras


Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati


Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee


Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore


National Institute of Technologies (formerly called Regional Engineering Colleges)


School of Planning & Architecture


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Management Education


In India, all educational institutes which are providing management education are certified by the All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE).The management study and training in the country come with a variety of names –Master of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Management Studies (MMS), Master in Finance Control (MFC), PG Diploma in Business Management, Post-Graduate Program in Public Management & Policy (PGP-PMP), Master of Public Administration (MPA), PG. Diploma in Management (PGDIM), PG. Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDHRM), PG. Diploma in Financial Management (PGDFM), PG. Diploma in Operations Management (PGDOM), PG. Diploma in Marketing Management (PGDMM) and so on.During the course, there are prospects of internship from campus providing a glimpse into the operation of an organization.There is ample scope for role-play and other simulations to develop skills in relevant areas.


Some common names in the world of management education are the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs).There are six IIMs in the country located in various cities.These institutes are famous worldwide for imparting quality management education to the students of the country.


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Research Centres


Basic researches in India are mostly limited to academic institutions, universities, national and regional research laboratories and other central research development organizations. There are premier research establishments like BARC, ISRO, DRDO, ICAR, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, The Institute of Physics and many others such centres which are responsible for intensive research works in various fields of Science and Humanities.


For more details on research centers in India, Click Here


Teacher Training Institutes


The main aim of providing training to the teachers is to bring reformation in the curriculum in schools throughout the country.Teachers are the most respectable personalities in the society who play a great role in making the lives of the children. Teachers must educate themselves to have an idea about the recent development of education through technology and should also pass it to their students for their future prospects.There are a number of teacher training institutes established in various states of the country to provide training based education to teachers.The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) is an advisory apex body for the Central and State Governments on all matters pertaining to teacher education.


TTTI, Bhopal is another institute established by the government of India for development of technical education in the country.It is now the leader for integrated development of world class Technical Education and Training System through all possible means including teacher education, research and development and consultancy, consistent with the needs of the industry and community.


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