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Stopping Child Birth - For A Healthy Family Life

The initial years after marriage is devoted to raising a family and bearing kids. However there comes a point of time in married life when having too many children may prove to be a nuisance rather than arousing the paternal or maternal instincts of the individuals. In the present day circumstances, owing to the fast pace of life most women find their hands full-juggling with careers, home, husbands and kids. Which is why the trend to have as few children as possible. From the medical angle too, there is evidence to prove that lesser children invariably lead to qualitative improvement in the health levels of the mothers as well as the surviving children. This is where contraception steps in.

He term contraception denotes a method by which the biological process of reproduction can be stopped or modified as per the requirements of the human individuals. The methods of contraception may be undertaken for health reasons ( mainly that of the mother and/or the child) and also for exerting a
certain amount of control over the erratic growth of population. Contraception is indeed the crying need in an overpopulated country like India.

There are several commonly available methods of contraception which are detailed below

Female Sterilization is a safe and simple surgical procedure and can usually be done with local anesthesia and light sedation. A small incision is made by the doctor in the woman's abdomen and the two fallopian tubes are blocked off or cut. These tubes carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. With the tubes blocked, the woman's egg cannot meet the man's sperm. The effectiveness of this method depends partially on how the tubes are blocked, but all pregnancy rates are low.

Positive Points
Very effective. It is permanent. A single procedure leads to lifelong, safe and very effective family planning. Nothing needs to be done no supplies are required and there is no need of repeated visits to clinics. No interference with sex. Does not affect a woman's ability to have sex. No long-term side effects or health risks.

Negative Points: It is usually painful for the woman for several days after the operation. Certain uncommon complications of the surgery can occur: Infection or bleeding at the incision. There might be internal bleeding and injury to internal organs. With local anesthesia alone or with sedation, thre is a risk of allergic reaction or overdose. With general anesthesia, occasional delayed recovery and side effects may occur . . There is also a risk of overdose. Reversal surgery is difficult, expensive and not available in most areas. Successful reversal too is not guaranteed.

Combined Oral Contraceptives Women who use oral contraceptives swallow a pill each day to prevent pregnancy. These pills contain two hormones similar to the natural hormones in a woman's body---an estrogen and a progesterone. . They stop ovulation (release of eggs from ovaries) -Also thicken cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperm to pass through. -They do not work by disrupting existing pregnancy

Positive points: Very effective when used correctly No need to do anything at time of sexual intercourse Increased sexual enjoyment because no need to worry about pregnancy Monthly periods are regular with lesser bleeding and fewer days of bleeding minus menstrual cramps Can be used at any age from adolescence to menopause Fertility returns soon after stopping Can be used as an emergency contraceptive after unprotected sex Can prevent or decrease iron deficiency, anemia,Ectopic pregnancies, Endometrial cancer, Ovarian cancer and cysts, Pelvic inflammatory diseases etc

Negative points: Nausea (most common in first three months) Spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods, especially if woman forgets to take her pills or takes them late (most common in first three months)

DMPA Injectible Contraceptives Women receive these injections to prevent pregnancy. It mainly stops ovulation (release of eggs from ovaries). It thickens the cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperm to pass through. It does not disrupt existing pregnancy.

Positive points: It results in long term pregnancy prevention, which is reversible. One injection can prevent pregnancy for 3 months. It does not interfere with sex and can be used at any stage. It does not harm the quantity and quality of breast milk and can be used by nursing mothers as soon as six weeks after childbirth. It has no estrogen side effects. It does not increase the risk of estrogen related complications such as heart attack. It helps prevent endomaterial cancer and uterine fibroids and even ovarian cancer.

Negative Points: Changes in menstrual bleeding are likely. Amenorrhea is a normal effect especially after the first year of use. These injections may cause weight gain . Headaches, breast tenderness, moodiness, nausea, hair loss, less sex drive, acne etc occur in some women. Does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases.

Vaginal methods are tools that a woman places in her vagina shortly before indulging in sex. These include Spermicides( foaming tablets or suppositories), melting suppositories, foam, melting film, diaphragm jelly and cream. Spermicides work by killing sperm or making sperm unable to move towards the egg. Diaphragms block the sperm from entering the uterus and tubes, when sperm could meet an egg.

Positive points:
Safe, easy methods that almost every woman can use. Help prevent some STDs and conditions caused by STDs--- pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, ectopic pregnancy and possibly cervical cancer. May offer some protection against HIV/AIDS.. It offers contraception when needed. No daily action needed. No side effects from hormones. No effect on breast milk.

Negative points:
Spermicide may cause irritation to woman or her partner, especially if used several times a day. Spermicide may also cause local allergic reaction in the woman or her partner. They are known to cause urinary tract infections.

Vasectomy provides permanent contraception for men who decide they do they will not want more children. It is a safe, simple and quick surgical procedure and can be done in a clinic or office with proper infection prevention procedures. Facts as opposed to the prevalent myths: It is not castration, and does not affect the testes, and it does not affect sexual ability

Method.
The doctor makes a small opening in the man's scrotum (the sac of the skin that holds his testicles) and closes off both tubes that carry sperm from his testicles. This keeps the sperm out of his semen. The man can have erections and ejaculate semen, while his sperm no longer makes a woman pregnant..

Advantages: It is very effective and is a permanent method. It does not affect the ability to have sex. No apparent long-term health risks.

Disadvantages: Certain minor short term complications of surgery occur. Discomfort for 2 to 3 days . Brief feeling of faintness after the procedure Bleeding or infection at the incision site or inside the incision my occur. Not immediately effective, as the first 20 ejaculations after vasectomy may contain sperm. Reversal surgery is difficult, expensive and not available in most areas of the world. Success cannot be guaranteed.

Intrauterine Device is a small, flexible plastic frame. It often has copper wire or copper sleeves on it. It is inserted into a woman's vagina through her uterus. Almost all brands of IUDs have two strings, or threads, tied to them. The strings hang through the opening of the cervix into the vagina. A provider can remove the IUD by pulling gently on the strings with forceps.

Positive points:
Single decision leads to effective long-term prevention of pregnancy. Long lasting. . They are very effective and nothing needs to be done prior to intercourse No interference with sex. Heightens sexual enjoyment because there is no need to worry about

Negative points
Menstrual changes occur which include longer and heavier menstrual periods, bleeding or spotting between periods, cramps or pain during periods .IUD s may often lead to inflammation of the ovaries or other internal complications. Perforation (piercing) of the wall of the uterus can also occur. Does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV/AIDS.

A condom is a sheath or covering made to fit over a man's erect penis. It is also called rubbers, sheaths, skins and prophylactics, and known by many different brand names. Most common condoms are made of thin latex rubber. Some condoms are coated with a dry lubricant or with spermicide. Different sizes, shapes, colors and textures maybe available. Condoms help prevent both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Used correctly, they keep sperm and any disease organisms in the semen out of the vagina. Condoms also stop any disease causing organisms from entering the penis. To be highly effective, it must be used correctly every time. Many men do not use condoms correctly or do not use them every time they have sex. Thus, they may risk causing pregnancy, getting STDs, or giving STDs to their partners.

Positive points
It prevents STDs, HIV/AIDS, as well as pregnancy, when used correctly, with every act of sexual intercourse. It helps protect against conditions caused by STDs--- pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pain and possibly cervical cancer in women, infertility in both men and women. Can be used to prevent STD infection during pregnancy. Can be used immediately after childbirth. No effect on breast milk (unlike combined oral contraceptives). Protect against infection in the uterus at a time when such infection occurs easily. It has no hormonal side effects. Can be used by men of all ages without even consulting health care provider. Often helps in preventing premature ejaculation thereby helping the man last longer during penetration. Condoms seldom break if used carefully and without too much of force.

Negative points:
Latex condoms may cause itching or for a few people who are allergic to latex. In addition, some people maybe allergic to the lubricant present on certain brands of condoms.



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