CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus

CBSE las 12 geography

Unit-wise allocation of marks for Geography Class 12:

Fundamentals of Human Geography 


Unit 1 

Human Geography 


Unit 2



Unit 3

Human Activities 


Unit 4

Transport, Communication and Trade


Unit 5

Human settlements



Map Work



India: People and Economy


Unit 6



Unit 7

Human Settlements


Unit 8

Resources and Development


Unit 9

Transport, Communication and International Trade


Unit 10

Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems



Map Work



Practical Work


Unit 1

Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping


Unit 2

Field study or Spatial Information Technology


Unit 3

Practical Record Book and Viva Voce


CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus:

A. Fundamentals of Human Geography

Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope

Unit 2: People
Population-distribution,density and growth
Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;
Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;
Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3: Human Activities
Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities - some examples from selected countries.
Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types - household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries.
Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries.
Quatenary activities - concept; people engaged in quatenary activities - case study from selected countries.

Unit 4: Transport, Communication & Trade
Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways.
Water transport - inland waterways; major ocean routes.
Air transport - Intercontinental air routes.
Oil and gas pipelines.
Satellite communication and cyber space- Importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS.
International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.
Ocean: National rights and international treaties.

Unit 5: Human settlements
Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Map Work
Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of World.

B. India: People and Economy

Unit 6: People
Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population.
Migration: international, national-causes and consequences.
Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns.
Population, environment and development.

Unit 7: Human Settlements
Rural settlements - types and distribution.
Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.

Unit 8: Resources and Development
Land resources - general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.
Water resources - availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods -rain water harvesting and watershed management.
Mineral and energy resources - distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.
Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location; industrial clusters.
Planning in India - target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).

Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade

Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks.
International trade - changing pattern of India's foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems
Environmental pollution; urban - waste disposal.
Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.
Land degradation.

Map Work
Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline map of India.

C. Practical Work

  • Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping
  • Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology
  • Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva Voce


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